"Americans had shifted from what the influential historian Warren Susman called a Culture of Character to a Culture of Personality.Performance and appearances came to be valued over character when Americans found themselves working alongside strangers and "employees."
In the Culture of Character, the ideal self was serious, disciplined, and honorable. What counted was not so much the impression one made in public as how one behaved in private.
The word personality didn't exist in English until the eighteenth century, and the idea of "having a good personality" was not widespread until the twentieth."
"The social role demanded of all in the new Culture of Personality was that of performer," Susman famously wrote."
Susman counted the words that appeared most frequently in the personality-driven advice manuals of the early twentieth century and compared them to the character guides of the nineteenth century.
From 19th century guides, representing a Culture of Character:
- Golden deeds
From 20th century guides, representing a Culture of Personality: