Effects Of Walnut Consumption On Endothelial Function In Type 2 Diabetics: A Randomized, Controlled, Cross-Over Trial, Diabetes Care, Oct 2009
Intake: 56 grams (about 2 ounces, 28 halves or 14 whole nuts/day) for 8 weeks.
"Endothelial function (measured by flow-mediated dilation) significantly improved."(The California Walnut Commission co-sponsored this study. What are you going to do.)
A Walnut Diet Improves Endothelial Function In Hypercholesterolemic Subjects, Circulation, 2004
Intake: 40 to 65 grams (about 8 to 13 whole walnuts/day) for 4 weeks.
"[The walnut diet] improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation. ... Significantly reduced total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol."
Long-Term Effects Of Increased Dietary Polyunsaturated Fat From Walnuts On Metabolic Parameters In Type II Diabetes, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Aug 2009
Intake: 30 grams (about 1 ounce, 14 halves or 7 whole nuts/day) for 1 year.
"Significantly greater reductions in fasting insulin levels."(When insulin goes up, the ability of the body to burn fat (a.k.a. fat oxidation or beta oxidation) goes down. Usually. The obese tend not to conform to this tenet, and will continue to burn fat at higher levels of insulin. Insulin resistance affects not only glucose metabolism but fat metabolism.)
Including Walnuts In A Low-Fat/Modified-Fat Diet Improves HDL Cholesterol-To-Total Cholesterol Ratios In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Care, 2004
Intake: 30 grams (about 1 ounce, 14 halves or 7 whole nuts/day) for 6 months.
"The walnut group achieved a significantly greater increase in HDL cholesterol–to–total cholesterol ratio, and HDL. ... A 10% reduction in LDL cholesterol was also achieved in the walnut group."(HDL is the "good cholesterol." Increases in HDL are a good thing.)